JAMB Physics Past Questions

When it comes to the UTME JAMB examination, it’s essential for candidates to grasp the essence of the Physics questions they’ll face. Many candidates, unfortunately, harbor the misconception that Physics is a challenging subject.

The primary reason behind this is the mistaken belief that merely memorizing formulas is sufficient. However, Physics is about more than just rote learning.

To master Physics, one needs to fathom the principles behind each formula and discern when and how to apply it. It’s a subject that necessitates precise thinking and absolute concentration.

For instance, if a question states that a car starts from rest, it implies that the initial velocity is zero (U=0). This example illustrates that understanding the context and the principles of Physics can make problem-solving much more straightforward.

When a car comes to rest, its final velocity is zero. This practical approach and understanding are what makes Physics seem easy to those who grasp its core principles. To aid in your preparation, we are providing you with top-notch JAMB Physics past questions that are available for free download.

Questions Jamb Set in Physics

What are jamb physics past questions?

While thorough reading of the JAMB recommended textbook for Physics is advisable, it’s not necessary to delve into every topic in-depth. After careful analysis over the years, we’ve identified key areas that JAMB frequently targets for Physics questions. Candidates opting for Physics should be prepared to tackle questions from the following domains:

• Newton’s Laws of motion
• Machine-related problems
• Mirrors and Lens
• Optics
• Energy Quantization
• Basic Electronics
• Electric Field
• Magnetism
• Waves
• … and many more, including questions on Nuclear physics, Gas laws, and Heat energy.

The idea is to focus on these critical areas while preparing, to optimize your chances of scoring well.

Before you proceed to download the JAMB Physics past questions, you need to know the JAMB Physics syllabus. Please write it down in your notes and study till you tick everything off.

## Jamb Syllabus for Physics

1. Measurement & Unit

(a) Length area and volume: Metre rule, Vernier calipers Micrometer Screw-gauge

(b) Mass:

(i) unit of mass

(ii) use of simple beam balance

(c) Time:

(i) unit of time

(ii) time-measuring devices

(d) Fundamental physical quantities

(e) Derived physical quantities and their units

(i) Combinations of fundamental quantities and determination of their units

(f) Dimensions

(i) definition of dimensions

(ii) simple examples.

(g) Limitations of experimental measurements

(i) accuracy of measuring instruments

(ii) simple estimation of errors.

(iii) significant figures.

(iv) standard form.

2. Scalars and Vectors

(i) definition of scalar and vector quantities

(ii) examples of scalar and vector quantities

(iii) relative velocity

(iv) resolution of vectors into two perpendicular directions including graphical methods of solution.

3. Motion

(a) Types of motion: translational, oscillatory, rotational, spin and random

(b) linear motion

(i) speed, velocity and acceleration

(ii) equations of uniformly accelerated motion

(iii) motion under gravity

(iv) distance-time graph and velocity time graph

(v) instantaneous velocity and acceleration.

(c) Projectiles:

(i) calculation of range, maximum height and time of fight

(ii) applications of projectile motion

(d) Newton’s laws of motion:

(i) inertia, mass and force

(ii) relationship between mass and acceleration

(iii) impulse and momentum

(iv) conservation of linear momentum

(Coefficient of restitution not necessary)

(e) Motion in a circle:

(i) angular velocity and angular acceleration

(ii) centripetal and centrifugal forces.

(iii) applications

(f) Simple Harmonic Motion (S.H.M):

(i) definition and explanation of simple harmonic motion

(ii) examples of systems that execute S.H.M

(iii) period frequency and amplitude of S.H.M

(iv) velocity and acceleration of S.H.M

(v) energy change in S.H.M

4. Gravitational field

(i) Newton’s law of universal gravitation

(ii) gravitational potential

(iii) conservative and non-conservative fields

(iv) acceleration due to gravity [g=GM / R]

(iv) variation of g on the earth’s surface

(v) distinction between mass and weight

(vi) escape velocity

(vii) parking orbit and weightlessness

5. Equilibrium of Forces

(a) equilibrium of a particles:

(i) equilibrium of coplanar forces

(ii) triangles and polygon of forces

(iii) Lami’s theorem

(b) principles of moments

(i) moment of a force

(ii) simple treatment and moment of a couple (torgue)

(iii) applications

(c) conditions for equilibrium of rigid bodies under the action of parallel and non-parallel forces:

(i) resolution and composition of forces in two perpendicular directions,

(ii) resultant and equilibrant

(d) centre of gravity and stability

(i) stable, unstable and neutral equilibrium

6. Work Energy and Power

(i) definition of work, energy and power

(ii) forms of energy

(iii) conservation of energy

(iv) qualitative treatment between different forms of energy

(v) interpretation of area under the force distance curve

7. Friction

(i) static and dynamic friction

(ii) coefficient of limiting friction and its determination.

(iv) reduction of friction

(v) qualitative treatment of viscosity and terminal viscosity.

(vi) stoke’s law.

8. Simple Machines

(i) definition of machine

(ii) types of machines

(iii) mechanical advantage, velocity ratio and efficiency of machines

9. Elasticity

(i) elastic limit, yield point, breaking point, Hooke’s law and Young’s modulus

(ii) the spring balance as a device for measuring force

(iii) work done in springs and elastic strings

10. Pressure

(a) Atmospheric Pressure:

(i) definition of atmospheric pressure

(ii) units of pressure (S.I) units

(iii) measurement of pressure

(iv) simple mercury barometer, aneroid barometer and manometer.

(v) variation of pressure with height

(vi) the use of a barometer as an altimeter.

(b) Pressure in liquids:

(i) the relationship between pressure, depth and density (P = ρgh)

(ii) transmission of pressure in liquids (Pascal’s Principle)

(iii) application

11. Liquids at Rest

(i) determination of density of solid and liquids

(ii) definition of relative density

(iii) upthrust on a body immersed in a liquid

(iv) Archimede’s principle and law of flotation and applications, e.g. ships and hydrometers.

12. Temperature and Its Measurement

(i) concept of temperature

(ii) thermometric properties

(iii) calibration of thermometers

(iv) temperature scales –Celsius and Kelvin.

(v) types of thermometers

(vi) conversion from one scale of temperature to another

13. Thermal Expansion

(a) Solids:

(i) definition and determination of linear, volume and area expansivities

(ii) effects and applications, e.g. expansion in building strips and railway lines

(iii) relationship between different expansivities

(b) Liquids:

(i) volume expansivity

(ii) real and apparent expansivities

(iii) determination of volume expansivity

(iv) anomalous expansion of water

14. Gas Laws

(i) Boyle’s law (PV = constant)

(ii) Charle’s law ( V/P = constant)

(iii) Pressure law ( P/T = constant )

(iv) absolute zero of temperature

(v) general gas equation ( PV/T = constant )

(vi) ideal gas equation (Pv = nRT)

15. Quantity of Heat

(i) heat as a form of energy

(ii) definition of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of solids and liquids

(iii) determination of heat capacity and specific heat capacity of substances by simple methods e.g method of mixtures and electrical method

16. Change of State

(i) latent heat

(ii) specific latent heats of fusion and vaporization;

(iii) melting, evaporation and boiling

(iv) the influence of pressure and of dissolved substances on boiling and melting points.

(v) application in appliances

17. Vapours

(i) unsaturated and saturated vapours

(ii) relationship between saturated vapour pressure (S.V.P) and boiling

(iii) determination of S.V.P by barometer tube method

(iv) formation of dew, mist, fog, and rain

(v) study of dew point, humidity and relative humidity

(vi) hygrometry; estimation of the humidity of the atmosphere using wet and dry bulb hygrometers.

18. Structure of Matter and Kinetic Theory

(a) Molecular nature of matter

(i) atoms and molecules

(ii) molecular theory: explanation of Brownian motion, diffusion, surface tension, capillarity, adhesion, cohesion and angles of contact

(iii) examples and applications.

(b) Kinetic Theory

(i) assumptions of the kinetic theory

(ii) using the theory to explain the pressure exerted by gas, Boyle’s law, Charles’ law,

melting, boiling, vapourization, change in temperature evaporation, etc.

19. Heat Transfer

(i) conduction, convention and radiation as modes of heat transfer

(ii) temperature gradient, thermal conductivity and heat flux

(iii) effect of the nature of the surface on the energy radiated and absorbed by it.

(iv) the conductivities of common materials.

(vii) land and sea breeze

20. Waves

(a) Production and Propagation:

(i) wave motion,

(ii) vibrating systems as source of waves

(iii) waves as mode of energy transfer

(iv) distinction between particle motion and wave motion

(v) relationship between frequency, wavelength and wave velocity (V=f λ)

(vi) phase difference

(vii) progressive wave equation e.g y = A sin 2π/λ (vt + x)

(b) Classification:

(i) types of waves; mechanical and electromagnetic waves

(ii) longitudinal and transverse waves

(iii) stationary and progressive waves

(iv) examples of waves from springs, ropes, stretched strings and the ripple tank.

(c) Characteristics / Properties:

(i) reflection, refraction, diffraction and plane Polarization

(ii) superposition of waves e.g interference

21. Propagation of Sound Waves

(i) the necessity for a material medium

(ii) speed of sound in solids, liquids and air;

(iii) reflection of sound; echoes, reverberation and their applications

(iv) disadvantages of echoes and reverberations

22. Characteristics of Sound Waves

(i) noise and musical notes

(ii) quality, pitch, intensity and loudness and their application to musical instruments;

(iii) simple treatment of overtones produced by vibrating strings and their columns

Fo= 1/2L Square root T/M

(iv) acoustic examples of resonance

(v) frequency of a note emitted by air columns in closed and open pipes in relation to their lengths.

23. Light Energy

(a) Source of Light:

(i) natural and artificial source of light

(ii) luminous and non-luminous objects

(b) Propagation of light:

(i) speed, frequency and wavelength of light

(ii) formation of shadows and eclipse

(iii) the pin-hole camera.

24. Reflection of Light at Plane and Curved Surfaces

(i) laws of reflection.

(ii) application of reflection of light

(iii) formation of images by plane, concave and convex mirrors and ray diagrams

(iv) use of the mirror formula

l/F = I/U + I/V

(v) linear magnification

25. Refraction of Light Through

(a) Plane and Curved Surface:

(i) explanation of refraction in terms of velocity of light in the media.

(ii) laws of refraction

(iii) definition of refractive index of a medium

(iv) determination of refractive index of glass and liquid using Snell’s law

(v) real and apparent depth and lateral displacement

(vi) critical angle and total internal reflection

(b) Glass Prism:

(i) use of the minimum deviation formula u=sin A+D/2 / A/2.

(ii) type of lenses

(iii) use of lens formula

l = l + l

f u v

(iv) magnification

26. Optical Instruments

(i) the principles of microscopes, telescopes, projectors, cameras and the human eye (physiological details of the eye are not required)

(ii) power of a lens

(iii) angular magnification

(iv) near and far points

(v) sight defects and their corrections

27. (a) dispersion of light and colours

(i) dispersion of white light by a triangular prism

(ii) production of pure spectrum

(iii) colour mixing by addition and subtraction

(iv) colour of objects and colour filters

(b) electromagnetic spectrum

(i) description of sources and uses of various types of radiation.

28. Electrostatics

(i) existence of positive and negative charges in matter

(ii) charging a body by friction, contact and induction

(iii) electroscope

(iv) coulomb’s inverse square law electric field and potential

(v) electric field and potential

(vi) electric discharge and lightning

29. Capacitors

(i) functions of capacitors

(ii) parallel plate capacitors

(iii) capacitance of a capacitors

(iv) the relationship between capacitance, area separation of plates and medium between the plates. C = 3A/d

(v) capacitors in series and parallel

(vi) energy stored in a capacitor

30. Electric Cells

(i) simple voltaic cell and its defects;

(ii) Daniel cell, Leclanche cell (wet and dry)

(iii) lead –acid accumulator and Nickel-Iron (Nife) Lithium lon and Mercury cadmium

(iv) maintenance of cells and batteries (detail treatment of the chemistry of a cell is not required

(v) arrangement of cells

31. Current Electricity

(i) electromagnetic force (emf), potential difference (p.d.), current, internal resistance of a cell and lost Volt

(ii) Ohm’s law

(iii) measurement of resistance

(iv) meter bridge

(v) resistance in series and in parallel and their combination

(vi) the potentiometer method of measuring emf, current and internal resistance of a

cell.

32. Electrical Energy and Power

(i) concepts of electrical energy and power

(ii) commercial unit of electric energy and power

(iii) electric power transmission

(iv) heating effects of electric current.

33. Magnets and Magnetic Fields

(i) natural and artificial magnets

(ii) magnetic properties of soft iron and steel

(iii) methods of making magnets and demagnetization

(iv) concept of magnetic field

(v) magnetic field of a permanent magnet

(vi) magnetic field round a straight current carrying conductor, circular wire and solenoid

(vii) properties of the earth’s magnetic field; north and south poles, magnetic meridian and angle of dip and declination

(viii) flux and flux density

(ix) variation of magnetic field intensity over the earth’s surface

(x) applications: earth’s magnetic field in navigation and mineral exploration.

34. Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor in

a) Magnetic Field:

(i) quantitative treatment of force between two parallel current-carrying conductors

(ii) force on a charge moving in a magnetic field;

(iii) the d. c. motor

(iv) electromagnets

(v) carbon microphone

(vi) moving coil and moving iron instruments

(vii) conversion of galvanometers to ammeters and voltmeter using shunts and multipliers

35. (a) Electromagnetic Induction

(i) Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction

(ii) factors affecting induced emf

(iii) Lenz’s law as an illustration of the principle of conservation of energy

(iv) a.c. and d.c generators

(v) transformers

(vi) the induction coil

(b) Inductance:

(i) explanation of inductance

(ii) unit of inductance

(iii) energy stored in an inductor

(iv) application/uses of inductors

(c) Eddy Current:

(i) reduction of eddy current

(ii) applications of eddy current

36. Simple A. C. Circuits

(i) explanation of a.c. current and voltage

(ii) peak and r.m.s. values

(iii) a.c. source connected to a resistor;

(iv) a.c source connected to a capacitor capacitive reactance

(v) a.c source connected to an inductorinductive reactance

(vi) series R-L-C circuits

(vii) vector diagram

(viii) reactance and impedance of alternative quantities

(ix) effective voltage in an R-L-C circuits

(x) resonance and resonance frequency

37. Conduction of Electricity Through

(a) liquids:

(i) electrolytes and non-electrolyte

(ii) concept of electrolysis

(iv) application of electrolysis, e.g electroplating, calibration of ammeter etc.

(b) gases:

(i) discharge through gases (quantitative treatment only)

(ii) application of conduction of electricity through gases

38. Elementary Modern Physics

(i) models of the atom and their limitations

(ii) elementary structure of the atom;

(iii) energy levels and spectra

(iv) thermionic and photoelectric emissions;

(v) Einstein’s equation and stopping potential

(vi) applications of thermionic emissions and photoelectric effects

(vii) simple method of production of x-rays

(viii) properties and applications of alpha, beta and gamma rays

(xiii) half-life and decay constant

(xiv) simple ideas of production of energy by fusion and fission

(xv) binding energy, mass defect and Einsterin’s Energy equation

(xvi) wave-particle paradox (duality of matter)

(xvii) electron diffraction

(xviii) the uncertainty principle

39. Introductory Electronics

(i) distinction between metals, semiconductors and insulators (elementary knowledge of band gap is required)

(ii) intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductors;

(iii) uses of semiconductors and diodes in rectification and transistors in amplification

(iv) n-type and p-type semi-conductors

(v) elementary knowledge of diodes and transistors

(vi) use of semiconductors and diodes in rectification and transistors in amplification.

### Numbers of Physics Questions asked in JAMB

How many questions does JAMB set for physics?

It’s crucial for candidates to have clarity on the examination format. In the UTME JAMB exam, each candidate is expected to answer 50 questions from the Physics section. Preparing with this in mind helps in better time management and strategizing during the actual examination.

Familiarizing oneself with past questions can offer a distinct advantage, allowing candidates to anticipate the nature of the questions and prepare accordingly.

1. A satellite is in a parking orbit if its period is: Solution: A satellite is said to be in a geostationary or parking orbit if its period of revolution around the Earth is the same as the Earth’s period of rotation. Therefore, its period is equal to the period of the Earth. Answer: B. Equal to the period of the earth

2. What does not drop through an open umbrella of silk material unless the inside of the umbrella is touched? Solution: The phenomenon described here relates to the concept of surface tension, which prevents water droplets from passing through the silk material of the umbrella. Answer: C. Surface tension.

3. A bead traveling on a straight wire is brought to rest at 0.2m by friction. If the mass of the bead is 0.01kg and the coefficient of friction between the bead and the wire is 0.1, determine the work done by the friction. Solution: Work done = Force x Distance = (Frictional force) x Distance = (μmg) x d = (0.1 x 0.01 x 10 x 0.2) = 2 x 10^-3J. Answer: A. 2 x 10^-3J

4. The stylus of a phonograph record exerts a force of 77. x 10^-2N on a groove of radius 10^-5m. Compute the pressure exerted by the stylus on the groove. Solution: Pressure = Force/Area = Force/πr^2 = 77. x 10^-2/(π(10^-5)^2) = 2.45 x 10^8Nm^-2. Answer: C. 2.45 x 10^8Nm^-2

5. A piece of stone attached to one end of a string is whirled round in a horizontal circle and the string suddenly cuts. The stone will fly off in a direction. Solution: When the string is cut, the stone will follow a tangential path to the circular motion. Answer: A. Tangential to the circular path.

6. A test tube of radius 1.0cm is loaded to 8.8g. If it is placed upright in the water, find the depth to which it would sink. Solution: Using the principle of floatation, the weight of the liquid displaced is equal to the weight of the immersed test tube. Volume of the tube immersed, V = m/gπr^2 = 8.8/10*π(0.01^2) = 2.8 x 10^-5 m^3. Depth, h = V/πr^2 = 2.8cm. Answer: B. 2.8 cm

7. A 90cm uniform lever has a load of 30N suspended at 15cm from one of its ends. If the fulcrum is at the centre of gravity, the force that must be applied at its other end to keep it in horizontal equilibrium is: Solution: Using the principle of moments, 30N * 15cm = Force * 75cm. Force = (30*15)/75 = 6N. Answer: D. 15 N

8. On top of a spiral spring of force constant 500 Nm^-1 is placed a mass of 5 x 10^-3kg. If the spring is compressed downwards by a length of 0.02m and then released, calculate the height to which the mass is projected. Solution: Potential energy in spring = 1/2 kx^2 = 1/2 * 500 * 0.02^2 = 2J. When the spring releases, this energy converts to gravitational potential energy, mgh. Hence, h = 2J/mg = 2/510^-310 = 0.4m. Answer: A. 2 m

9. A hose of cross-sectional area 0.5m^2 is used to discharge water from a water tank at a velocity of 60ms^-1 in 20s into a container. If the container is filled completely, the volume of the container is: Solution: Volume = Area x Distance = Area x (Velocity x Time) = 0.5 x (60 x 20) = 600 m^3. Answer: A. 600 m^3

10. A force of 100N is used to kick a football of mass 0.8kg. Find the velocity with which the ball moves if it takes 0.8s to be kicked. Solution: Using Newton’s second law, F = ma. Acceleration, a = F/m = 100/0.8 = 125ms^-2. Using kinematic equations, v = u + at. Since u = 0 (initial velocity), v = 125 * 0.8 = 100ms^-1. Answer: A. 100ms^-1

11. A 5kg block slides down a 30° incline plane with a constant speed. If the coefficient of friction between the block and the plane is 0.3, what is the normal reaction between the block and the plane? A. 35N B. 40N C. 45N D. 50N

Solution: N = mgcos(30°) = 510cos(30°) = 43.3N

12. A car moves with a speed of 60 km/h and possesses an energy of 3.0 x 10^5 J. Calculate the mass of the car. A. 833.33 kg B. 1500 kg C. 1200 kg D. 625 kg

Solution: E = 0.5 * m * v^2

13. Which color of light has the greatest energy? A. Red B. Green C. Blue D. Yellow

Solution: Blue light has a shorter wavelength and higher frequency than red light, hence more energy.

14. A machine of velocity ratio 5 is used to raise a load of 300N through a distance of 2.5m. If the effort moves through a distance of 12.5m, the efficiency of the machine is? A. 50% B. 70% C. 60% D. 80%

Solution: Efficiency = (Mechanical Advantage/Velocity Ratio)*100%

15. When a bar magnet is suspended freely in a uniform magnetic field, it aligns itself in A. East-West direction B. North-South direction C. Diagonal direction D. It doesn’t align itself in any fixed direction

Solution: A freely suspended magnet always aligns itself in North-South direction.

16. The efficiency of a machine is always less than 100% because of A. Mechanical advantage B. Load force C. Effort force D. Friction

Solution: Frictional forces always act in machines which reduce the efficiency.

17. The phenomenon of a light ray bending when it passes obliquely from one medium to another is known as A. Reflection B. Dispersion C. Refraction D. Polarization

Solution: Bending of light when passing from one medium to another is called refraction.

18. A 200W and 100W bulbs are connected in series to a 240V supply. Which of the bulbs will have a higher brightness? A. 200W bulb B. 100W bulb C. Both will have the same brightness D. Insufficient information provided

Solution: In series, current remains the same. P=I^2R, which means resistance of 100W bulb is higher and will glow brighter.

19. When a solid body is partially or wholly immersed in a fluid, it experiences an upward force called A. Tension B. Friction C. Buoyancy D. Gravitational force

Solution: The upward force experienced by a body when immersed in a fluid is called buoyancy.

20. A concave mirror produces a magnified, erect image when the object is placed A. At its focus B. Beyond its center of curvature C. Between its pole and focus D. At its center of curvature

Solution: For a concave mirror, when the object is placed between the pole and the focus, the image is erect and magnified.

Answer: C. Between its pole and focus

21. The process of determining the value of a quantity by comparing it with a standard value is called: A. Estimation B. Calculation C. Measurement D. Prediction

Solution: The process described is called measurement.

22. The resistance of a wire depends on: A. Material only B. Length only C. Cross-sectional area only D. Material, length, and cross-sectional area

Solution: Resistance, R = ρ(L/A) where ρ is resistivity, L is length, and A is the cross-sectional area.

Answer: D. Material, length, and cross-sectional area

23. Which of the following cannot be charged by friction? A. Plastic rod B. Glass rod C. Iron rod D. Copper rod

Solution: Metals, like iron and copper, cannot be easily charged by friction.

24. A noise level of about _____ decibels can cause damage to the human ear. A. 20 dB B. 50 dB C. 85 dB D. 100 dB

Solution: Prolonged exposure to noise levels above 85 decibels can cause damage to the human ear.

25. An instrument that measures atmospheric pressure is called: A. Hydrometer B. Barometer C. Manometer D. Thermometer

Solution: Atmospheric pressure is measured using a barometer.

26. The SI unit of electric charge is: A. Ampere B. Volt C. Ohm D. Coulomb

Solution: Electric charge is measured in coulombs.

27. The principle of floatation is based on: A. Archimedes’ principle B. Pascal’s law C. Newton’s third law D. Bernoulli’s theorem

Solution: The principle of floatation is based on Archimedes’ principle.

28. In a common emitter configuration, the phase difference between the input and output signals is: A. 0° B. 90° C. 180° D. 360°

Solution: In a common emitter configuration, the output is 180° out of phase with the input.

29. When a ray of light passes from air into a glass slab, it: A. Remains undeviated B. Bends towards the normal C. Bends away from the normal D. Scatters in all directions

Solution: As light moves from a rarer to a denser medium, it bends towards the normal.

Answer: B. Bends towards the normal

30. The potential difference across a 4 ohm resistor carrying 2 amperes is: A. 2 V B. 8 V C. 6 V D. 4 V

Solution: V = IR = 4 ohms x 2 amperes = 8 V.

31. Which of the following statements is true for isotopes? A. They have the same atomic number but different mass numbers. B. They have different atomic numbers but the same mass number. C. They have different numbers of electrons. D. They have different chemical properties.

Solution: Isotopes have the same number of protons (atomic number) but different numbers of neutrons, resulting in different mass numbers.

Answer: A. They have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.

32. A transformer is a device that: A. Converts AC voltage to DC voltage B. Converts DC voltage to AC voltage C. Changes the level of AC voltage D. Measures the AC voltage

Solution: A transformer is used to change the level of AC voltage.

Answer: C. Changes the level of AC voltage

33. The phenomenon in which an atom emits radiation to transform into a more stable configuration is known as: A. Conduction B. Fusion C. Radioactivity D. Ionization

Solution: The emission of radiation from an unstable atom to become more stable is called radioactivity.

34. What does the slope of a velocity-time graph represent? A. Distance B. Velocity C. Displacement D. Acceleration

Solution: The slope of a velocity-time graph gives acceleration.

35. Which of the following statements best defines inertia? A. It’s the force acting on a body. B. It’s the property of a body to continue in its state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force. C. It’s the amount of matter in a body. D. It’s the ability of a body to resist changes in temperature.

Solution: Inertia is the property of a body by which it remains at rest or continues in uniform motion unless acted upon by some external force.

Answer: B. It’s the property of a body to continue in its state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force.

36. In a hydraulic press, if the force applied at the smaller piston is 10N and the area of the smaller piston is 0.01m^2, what will be the force exerted by the larger piston of area 0.05m^2? A. 10N B. 50N C. 500N D. 100N

Solution: Using Pascal’s principle, �1/�1=�2/�2F1​/A1​=F2​/A2​. Thus, �2=(�1��2)/�1=(10�0.05)/0.01=50�F2​=(F1​xA2​)/A1​=(10x0.05)/0.01=50N.

36. What is the approximate speed of sound in air? A. 2��−12ms−1 B. 20��−120ms−1 C. 200��−1200ms−1 D. 343��−1343ms−1

37. What principle states that the upward buoyant force exerted on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid the body displaces? A. Newton’s Third Law B. Principle of Moments C. Archimedes’ Principle D. Pascal’s Principle

38. Which of the following has the same unit as energy? A. Force B. Power C. Work D. Impulse

39. What color of light has the highest frequency? A. Red B. Green C. Blue D. Yellow

40. Which of the following describes the phenomenon where a ray of light changes direction as it passes from one medium to another? A. Reflection B. Refraction C. Dispersion D. Polarization

41. An object floats in a fluid if: A. Its density is higher than the fluid. B. Its density is the same as the fluid. C. Its density is lower than the fluid. D. It is made of metal.

Answer: C. Its density is lower than the fluid.

42. Which of the following types of waves requires a material medium for its propagation? A. Sound waves B. Light waves C. Gamma rays D. X-rays

43. The measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body is called: A. Heat B. Energy C. Temperature D. Internal Energy

44. A machine has a mechanical advantage of 4. This means that: A. The machine increases the force applied by 4 times. B. The machine decreases the force applied by 4 times. C. The machine’s efficiency is 400%. D. The machine operates at 4 horsepower.

Answer: A. The machine increases the force applied by 4 times.

45. The escape velocity of a body from the earth’s surface is approximately: A. 8��/�8km/s B. 11��/�11km/s C. 15��/�15km/s D. 20��/�20km/s

46. What will be the reading of an ammeter in a circuit with a resistance of 4Ω4Ω and a voltage of 12�12V? A. 4�4A B. 8�8A C. 2�2A D. 3�3A

47. A car’s horn produces sound waves. Which of the following best describes these waves? A. Transverse and Mechanical B. Longitudinal and Mechanical C. Transverse and Electromagnetic D. Longitudinal and Electromagnetic

48. The sum of the proton number and the neutron number in an atom is known as: A. Atomic number B. Mass number C. Proton number D. Neutron number

49. A stone is thrown vertically upward with a velocity of 20��−120ms−1. What will be its velocity after 4�4s considering �=10��−2g=10ms−2? A. 60��−160ms−1 B. 40��−140ms−1 C. 20��−120ms−1 D. 0��−10ms−1